Ieee research papers on adhoc networks
This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of this dynamic field. It first explains the important role that mobile ad hoc networks play in the evolution of future wireless technologies. Call for Paper - November Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is October 21, Read More. Abstract A mobile ad hoc network MANET , sometimes called a mobile mesh network, is a self-configuring network of mobile devices connected by wireless links.
Reference J. Ahuja et al. Kalaavathi, et. Anastasi, M. Conti, E.
IJCA - Mobile Ad Hoc Networking : Imperatives and Challenges
Gregori, A. Passarella, A power saving architecture for web access from mobile computers, in: Proceedings of the Networking , Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. Broch, D. Maltz, D.
Johnson, Y. Different protocols are designed to use at the various layers; some of them are still under active development now. The IEEE IEEE represents a family of standards that function in the middle layers of the protocol stack to flexibly support safety applications in VANETs, while nonsafety applications are supported through another set of protocols. In particular, network layer services and transport layer services for nonsafety applications are provided by three quite stable protocols: IPv6, TCP, and UDP [ 11 , 17 , 18 ].
This part is a brief introduction to three aspects of VANETs research issues: routing, security, and privacy, as well as applications. Firstly, we discuss the classification of routing protocols and some algorithms. Then state-of-the-art security and privacy researches are discussed. Finally, we introduce two types of applications, namely, safety applications and nonsafety applications. In VANETs, wireless communication has been a critical technology to support the achievement of many applications and services.
Thus, researchers spare no effort to improve existing algorithms as well as design new ones, so that the communication reliability can be ensured. In [ 19 ], the authors review the current message broadcast protocols on vehicular ad hoc networks, such as a spatially aware packet routing algorithm which predicts the permanent topology holes and conducts the geographic forwarding , SADV which finds the best path to forward the packet , an interference aware routing scheme which equips the node with a multichannel radio interface and switches the channels based on the SIR evaluation , FROV which selects the retransmission spans further node to rebroadcast a message , and a multihop broadcast protocol which divides the road into segments and chooses the vehicle in the farthest nonempty segment.
Multicast is necessary to communications among a group of vehicles in some vehicular situations, such as intersections, roadblocks, high traffic density, accidents, and dangerous road surface conditions. In [ 19 ], the authors categorize the multicast protocols into two main types. One is topology-based approaches, such as ODMRP which generates a source-based multicast mesh and forwards based on the group address , MAODV which generates a group-based multicast tree , and GHM which generates group-based multicast meshes.
The other one is location-based approaches, such as PBM which is based on positions of all one-hop neighbors and positions of all individual destinations , SPBM which introduces hierarchical group membership management , LBM which uses a multicast region as destination information for multicast packets , and RBM and IVG which define a multicast scope for safety warning messages. Researchers investigate the unicast communication protocols for VANETs in three ways: 1 greedy: nodes forward the packets to their farthest neighbors towards the destination, like improved greedy traffic-aware routing GyTAR ; 2 opportunistic: nodes employ the carry-toward technique in order to opportunistically deliver the data to the destination, like topology-assist geo-opportunistic routing; and 3 trajectory based: nodes calculate possible paths to the destination and deliver the data through nodes along one or more of those paths, like trajectory-based data forwarding TBD [ 21 ].
Some of the routing protocols and algorithms are summarized in Table 3. Nevertheless, some researchers focus on presenting some novel protocols for V2V and V2I communications of data dissemination. The main contributions are various communication protocols from physical to application layers, even cross-layers. Kim et al. The results are depicted in Table 4. Table 4 Ten papers in [ 22 ] about data dissemination.
To address the security and privacy issues, many approaches have been proposed in the literatures over the past few years. Most of them pay more attention to two main aspects: communication and architecture of VANETs [ 25 ]. In [ 27 ], the authors present a novel security architecture focusing primarily on securing the operation of the wireless part of the vehicular communication system and on enhancing the privacy of its users.
Different from architecture, the vehicular communication system focuses primarily on secure communication schemes and algorithms [ 24 , 28 ]. Raya and Hubaux present a communication scheme, in which entities would like to establish a share session key if they need to securely communicate for a long time. This scheme pays much attention to safety-related applications, while the nonsafety-related applications are neglected [ 6 , 29 ].
In [ 28 ], the authors present an advanced secure communication scheme based on Raya and Hubaux's scheme, which extends its session key to be used in nonsafety-related applications and considers two session keys: pairwise and group keys. In [ 30 ], the authors discuss many security solutions that have been proposed in detail, such as VPKI vehicular public key infrastructure , CA certificate authority , and the group signature. Applications in vehicular environment usually can increase the road safety, improve traffic efficiency, and provide entertainment to passengers.
In most cases, VANETs applications can be roughly organized into two major classes: safety applications and nonsafety applications. Traditionally the intention of safety applications is accident prevention, and thus this kind of applications is also the main motivation for developing vehicular ad hoc networks. Such applications like crash avoidance have a great requirement for the communication between vehicles or between vehicles and infrastructure [ 9 ].
Several transportation departments in the US have identified eight safety applications in , which are considered to provide the greatest benefits, that is, traffic signal violation, curve speed warning, emergency brake lights, precrash sensing, collision warning, left turn assist, lane change warning, and stop sign assist [ 17 ]. Since convenience and efficiency applications can be offered on an individual basis, they do not require standardization and cooperation among vehicles. The growth of such applications and services in the market can be seen in the recent years, including some mobile service offerings on smartphones [ 13 ].
Convenience and efficiency applications usually provide drivers or passengers with some useful information, such as weather or traffic information and the location of restaurants or hotels nearby [ 9 ].
Entertainment applications may provide services like media downloading and online games. In order to evaluate the performance of different architecture approaches, protocols, algorithms, and applications, an effective research methodology is required in VANETs.
Such methods enable researchers and developers to check the drawbacks as well as ensure the availability of new proposed approaches to the above-mentioned aspects. In general, there are two important and necessary steps before the market introduction: 1 analysis and evaluation by simulations and 2 analysis and verification by field operational testing [ 13 ]. In this section, we first introduce the different models which are the essential basis for setting up respective methodologies, and then the simulations and field operational testing are discussed in the following contents.
VANETs are a large and complex overall system model, which consists of four submodels for the different aspects: driver and vehicle model, traffic flow model, communication model, and application model [ 13 ]. This model aims to reflect the behavior of a single vehicle. This behavior needs to consider two main factors: different driving styles and the vehicle characteristics, such as an aggressive or passive driver and a sports car.
In [ 13 ], the authors discuss the driver and vehicle model introduced by Treiber et al.
Traffic Flow Model. This model aims to reflect interactions between vehicles, drivers, and infrastructures and develop an optimal road network. In [ 31 ], according to various criteria level of detail, etc. Communication Model. This model is a pretty important part of research methodologies to address the data exchange among the road users. Thanks to the constraints of many factors the performance of the different communication layers, communication environment, and the routing strategies , communication model plays an important role in the research.
The authors in [ 17 ] give a detailed overview in the research field. Application Model. This model is very useful for the market introduction because it can address the behavior and quality of cooperative VANETs applications. This kind of model is necessary for two main reasons: 1 different functionality and visualizations for cooperative applications are provided by different vehicle manufacturers and 2 a prioritization of the information and warnings is needed among the simultaneous existence of several cooperative applications [ 13 ].
The simulation of VANETs requires two different components: a traffic simulator and a network simulator. In order to analyze vehicular ad hoc network characteristics and protocol performances, traffic simulators are needed to generate position and movement information of a single vehicle in VANETs environment. In [ 13 ], the authors list some existing traffic simulators in detail, like SUMO simulation of urban mobility and VISSIM simulation of the position and movement for vehicles as well as city and highway traffic. Network Simulators. To model and analyze the functionality of VANETs, a good network simulator should possess some features including a comprehensive mode, efficient routing protocols like AODV ad hoc on demand distance vector , and communication standards like IEEE Martinez et al.
Although the simulation method makes great contributions to the investigation of the VANETs, it does not reflect the real vehicular world. In order to overcome these issues, field operational testing FOT has attracted the attention of researchers, which aims to test and evaluate these applications at scale and covers a much wider range of real-world scenarios.
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Due to the high financial costs and the number of partners, FOT still depends on the reliable results of simulations. On the contrary, the data from the FOT can make the network models more reasonable and improve the performance of protocols. Finally, FOT has four important characteristics: 1 real system components, 2 real vehicles and traffic, 3 including all stakeholders, and 4 large and heterogeneous fleet [ 13 ].
Although researchers have achieved much great progress on VANETs study, there are still some challenges that need to be overcome and some issues that need to be further investigated e. For example, network connections may not be stable for a long time period. In order to improve the performance of communication, researchers have investigated the efficient use of available infrastructure, such as roadside units and cellular networks.
Although some specific challenges of VANETs have been overcome, many key research challenges have only partially been solved [ 34 ]. Thus, researchers need to do deeper work to solve these challenges.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: Architectures, Research Issues, Methodologies, Challenges, and Trends
In the following discussion, we will summarize the key challenges. Surprisingly little is known about the fundamental limitations and opportunities of VANETs communication from a more theoretical perspective [ 35 ]. We believe that avoiding accidents and minimizing resource usage are both important theoretical research challenges. The original IEEE Thus, researchers must do more work about standards. Routing Protocols. The management and control of network connections among vehicles and between vehicles and network infrastructures is the most important issue of VANETs communication [ 36 ].
Primary challenge in designing vehicular communication is to provide good delay performance under the constraints of vehicular speeds, high dynamic topology, and channel bandwidths [ 37 ]. In order to support real-time and multimedia applications, an available solution is to design cross-layer among original layers [ 37 ]. In general, cross-layer protocols that operate in multiple layers are used to provide priorities among different flows and applications. In [ 34 , 38 ], the authors address the importance of cross-layer design in VANETs after analyzing the performance metrics.